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Cracking Charles V’s Code: Deciphered Letter Reveals Emperor’s Fear

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charles v, francis i, spain, france, letter, conspiracy, cipher

charles v, francis i, spain, france, letter, conspiracy, cipher

One of the joys of history is that even though a scholar thinks he knows a subject, there are always discoveries to be made. For example, French scientists have recently focused on something that has been encrypted for almost 500 years.

A team of scientists at the Lorraine Laboratory of Research in Computer Science and Its Applications (LORIA) in eastern France has cracked a code used by Holy Roman Emperor and King of Spain Charles V to encrypt a letter in 1547.

Charles V was the emperor who ruled the first transatlantic empire (much of Western Europe and paCentre County Report of the Americas) and his reign lasted more than 40 years.

The first half of the 16th century was a time of the so-called “Italian Wars”. France’s ruler Francis I, with whom Charles V had signed the Peace Treaty of Crépy in 1544, died in 1547. Other conflicts were soon to rear their heads.

The letter that Charles V wrote to his ambassador Jean de Saint-Mauris was heavily ciphered: whole words were replaced by a single symbol, symbols that meant nothing were used, and some vowels that came after consonants were replaced by Signs replaced, leaving the letter unintelligible, except for Charles V’s signature.

Cecile Pierrot, a LORIA cryptographer, first learned of the existence of the letter in the Stanislas Library in Nancy in 2019 and, after a long search, was able to see it with her own eyes in 2021.

It took the team six months of painstaking work aided by computers, but eventually Pierrot found “distinguishable families” of about 120 symbols. Another letter from Jean de Saint-Mauris, in which the recipient had scrawled some soCentre County Report of transcription code in the margin, also helped. After that, the team understood a sentence in the letter, and then the code was cracked with the help of historian Camille Desenclos.

“One day there was a real breakthrough when we suddenly had the right hypothesis,” said Desenclos. “[It was] It is rare that a historian manages to read a letter that no one has been able to read for five centuries.

The letter revealed Charles V’s fear of an alleged assassination attempt against him that was said to be planned in France at the time.

Researchers now hope to identify more of the emperor’s letters “to get a snapshot of Charles V’s strategy in Europe,” and “it’s likely that we’ll make many more discoveries in the years to come,” the historian said .

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French lawmakers vote to condemn Iranian protest crackdown

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PARIS (AP) – French lawmakers on Monday condemned Iran’s crackdown on anti-government protesters and called on European governments to put more pressure on Iran to launch an investigation the death of Mahsa Amini, a 22-year-old woman who died in police custody in Tehran.

France’s National Assembly deputies unanimously passed a non-binding resolution in support of the protesters by a vote of 149 to 0. Activists also planned a demonstration Monday outside the Assembly, the lower but most powerful parliament building in France.

The resolution calls on European governments to step up pressure on Iran to honor its international promises and investigate what happened to Amini, who was arrested for violating the Islamic Republic’s strict dress code. The protests over her death have turned into the most serious challenge to the Iranian establishment in decades.

The measure condemns in the strongest possible terms what French lawmakers call “the brutal and generalized repression by the security forces… against non-violent protesters, which constitutes a blatant and unacceptable violation of the right to demonstrate and freedom of expression.”

Human rights monitors say hundreds have been killed and more than 18,000 arrested since anti-government protests began in September.

The French resolution also denounces laws and rules restricting the rights of women and minorities in Iran. It calls for the release of seven French nationals detained in Iranto.

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War in Ukraine: Kherson remains vulnerable as weather stalls frontline fighting

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Fighting on the front lines in Ukraine has slowed due to the country’s weather but is likely to resume once temperatures drop and the ground freezes.

The British Ministry of Defense says Kherson is still vulnerable to Russian forces because it is within range of most of Moscow’s artillery systems on the east bank of the Dnieper River.

But according to the Institute for the Study of War, Russian forces are preparing to thoroughly defend their positions and may be conducting delayed operations.

To learn more about the situation in Ukraine, watch our report by correspondent Sasha Vakulina in the video player above.

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BBC alleges Chinese police beat one of its reporters covering Shanghai protest – National

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That BBC said Chinese police attacked one of their journalists cover a protest in the Shanghai commercial hub and held him for several hours, drawing criticism from the British government, which described his detention as “shocking”.

China denied the portrayal, saying the journalist did not identify himself as a reporter.

“The BBC is extremely concerned at the treatment of our journalist Ed Lawrence, who was arrested and handcuffed while covering the Shanghai protests,” the British public broadcaster said in a statement late Sunday.

“He was held for several hours before being released. During his arrest, he was beaten and kicked by the police. This happened while he was working as an accredited journalist.”

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China continues to ease restrictions but reiterates zero-COVID stance amid protests

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Demonstrators have taken to the streets of Shanghai, Beijing and other cities in recent days to demonstrate against the heavy COVID-19 measures, a demonstration of civil disobedience unprecedented since Chinese leader Xi Jinping came to power.

In Beijing, a Foreign Ministry spokesman said the BBC’s statement did not reflect what happened. “As we understand it, the BBC’s statement is not true,” spokesman Zhao Lijian said.

“According to Shanghai authorities, the journalist in question has not revealed his journalistic identity at this time, he has not openly shown his foreign press card,” he added.

“When the incident occurred, law enforcement officers asked people to leave and when certain individuals did not cooperate, they were taken away from the scene.”

Foreign reporters in China are required to carry government-issued IDs that identify themselves as accredited journalists when covering news events.

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The journalist’s detention was “shocking and unacceptable,” said a spokesman for British Prime Minister Rishi Sunak on Monday.

Britain will raise concerns about China’s response to the protests and will continue to seek constructive relations with Beijing on other issues, the spokesman said.

Chinese security guards walk past an intersection near the protest site in Beijing November 28.

Ng Han Guan/AP

British Foreign Secretary James Cleverly said freedom of the media and freedom of protest must be respected.

“The arrest of BBC journalist Ed Lawrence in China is deeply disturbing. Journalists must be able to do their job without intimidation,” he said.

The Foreign Correspondents’ Club of China said it was “very disappointed and frustrated by the increasing obstacles faced by foreign journalists in China and the aggression shown towards them by the police”.

The BBC, in its statement ahead of the Chinese ministry’s comment, said it had not received a credible explanation for Lawrence’s detention.

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Stocks open lower, Crude Oil lower on China unrest

“We have received no official statement or apology from the Chinese authorities, apart from the claim by the officers who later released him that if he caught COVID from the crowd, they would have arrested him for his own good,” it said.

A Reuters journalist was also held for about 90 minutes on Sunday night before being released.

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